Sudan seemed to have found the path to peace after the fall of former President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir in 2019. But the country is struggling to recover and regain a measure of peace. While there is a truce in neighboring South Sudan, in Sudan itself the military and a group of their former militia allies have driven the country into instability, with thousands of collateral casualties.
Apart from the situation in Darfur, the military does not want Sudan to start the democratization process that would leave room for politicians. It is as if the military no longer feels comfortable in the barracks. In the Darfur region, the situation remains explosive and no solution has yet been found. The conflict between the army and the militias that supported it – the paramilitaries of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) – has plunged the country into chaos, the outcome of which is also far from reassuring for neighboring states, such as Chad and the Central African Republic, to name but two.
The new conflict broke out in Sudan on April 15, 2023. The war pits the regular army, led by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, against former Darfur militiamen, the RSF paramilitaries, led by General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known as “Hemedti.” These two generals are well known in Sudanese political life, having seized power in the October 2021 coup. On that occasion, General al-Burhan dissolved the government led by the transitional authorities and decreed a state of emergency, although he was, until that coup, head of the Sovereignty Council, the highest authority of the transition, composed of civilians and the military.