In an address to a group of scientists who were then dealing with the “new physics,” Albert Einstein said: “The quantum problem is so extraordinarily important and difficult that we should all give it our undivided attention.” Quantum mechanics is currently the most complete physics theory to describe matter, radiation and mutual interactions, especially in conditions where the previous so-called “classical” theories are inadequate, that is in the phenomena of atomic and subatomic particles or energy.
Einstein’s view is valid for everyone, because quantum physics, besides having a great technological – and consequently social – impact, has very important implications in the philosophical vision of reality.
We can add that Einstein – although he had a great admiration both for quantum mathematical formalism and for its ability to describe experiments – was not a supporter of the so-called “orthodox” interpretation of quantum physics. The orthodox interpretation, also called the “Copenhagen interpretation,” is essentially inspired by the work done around 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, enriched also by the decisive contribution of Max Born. In this article we will try to clarify this perspective.